Money Talks: It's Past Time That Marketers Reconsider Reward-Based Promotions
Recently, Bill Warshauer provided Target Marketing readers with a timely reminder of the efficacy of reward-based promotions and their utility in replacing discounts in the promotional mix.
Extremely interested, I commented and a somewhat updated summary follows:
It is past time that marketers reconsider reward-based promotions.
Let me give you one simple case history.
Some years ago, a client, a leading bank, found that they were sending pre-approved but unrequested credit cards to customers and were getting unacceptably few people "deblocking" or "activating" their cards despite a regular monthly conversion series urging them with various incentives like no annual charges for one year, to accept and use the new cards. The low conversion rate, plus the costs of up to six efforts per prospect with no revenue, were at least discouraging.
When we were asked for help, we proposed turning this system on its head. Our objective was simple: incentivize card recipients to use their new cards immediately instead of allowing the costly slow drip from promotions over months: make them, as mafia lore says, an offer they couldn’t afford to refuse but we could afford to make.
To do this we designed an elaborate mailing to be sent without fail, the day after the card, rehearsing all the card holder benefits but telling the prospect there was another "secret" benefit which could only be had by calling a special toll-free number.
Having determined in advance, the allowable cost per active card, we knew that we could afford to offer $50 per active card user. The caller was not to be asked to "deblock" or "activate" their card (unnecessarily bureaucratic words in our view) but rather, "May we credit your card account with a $50 gift you can spend right away when you use your card within the next five days?" (We also tested $20, $30, and $40 as alternatives to determine the most profitable offer.)
Want to know which was best? Ask me.
While the cost of the mailing package nearly got us fired, the results turned client fury into joy. We achieved the client's objective of conversion, even after consideration of the cost of the reward, at a cost-per-conversion of less than half of what the client had been spending. And it was right away, a significant cash advantage.
Not exactly the proverbial rocket science, is it?
I had drilled into me over the years by the iconic Dick Benson and by others that Rule No. 1 of what was then called direct marketing was:
It doesn’t matter a damn how much you spend in marketing money so long as in the end, the unit cost of achieving your order gives you the pre-determined profit you desire, or more!
Why many marketers have the least trouble getting their minds around this is a total mystery to me. It should be hardwired into them.
However, taking advantage of the isolation of the pandemic, it seemed worthwhile to have another go at trying to explain it and providing those readers who are interested, with the tools to build a simple model to help them calculate it for themselves.
Using the activation of distributed credit cards as an example, let’s assume that the bank has determined it can afford to spend a maximum of $87.50 to generate each active credit card. In arriving at that assessment of the "allowable," the bank has determined that it wishes to achieve a profit of a similar $87.50. And to make certain that their marketing geniuses won’t forget the need for that profit, the bank’s managers have made believe the profit is a "cost" and reserved it so the marketing guys cannot get their mitts on it.
Now, if the actual cost of generating the activation is exactly the $87.50 allowable, the profit will still be there. And if, due to the marketing team’s genius (or luck, or a combination of the two), the activation costs less than the allowable, the difference will go right to the bottom line and the applause will be deafening.
Let’s look at this starting with the knowns:
For this hypothetical example, let’s accept that the historic active card revenue is $350 and that operating the card system and covering general and administrative costs is 50% of this revenue. Now let’s reserve an additional 25% ($87.50) for profit before determining how much we can spend for marketing.
As you can see, that leaves us with $87.50 which we can afford to obtain an activated card user and make a 25% profit. Put another way, if we spend exactly $87.50 for marketing including the cost of any incentive, then we will make the mandated 25% profit. Spend more and we will make less profit or even have a loss; spend less and the saving against the $87.50 allowable will add to the profit.
Now the fun starts.
What we wish to project is how much our response needs to increase from a non-incentivized baseline to justify the incremental cost of each level of incentive. Let’s assume that including the variable cost of converting the incoming telephone calls, the per-thousand marketing cost is $1,500. Before adding the cost of any incentive, the baseline at different response levels looks like this.
As you can plainly see, only the cost of a 1% response exceeds the $87.50 allowable and eats into the reserved profit. At 2%, the cost is $75 which means that the bottom line is the $87.50 allowable plus the $87.50 reserved profit objective, less the $75 cost per response, for a total contribution of $100 or 35% of revenue, a comfortable ROMI of 1.33.
But as aggressive marketers, we want more responses and profit. And we are prepared to offer an incentive of $20 to achieve that. Our question must be: How much does the addition of this incentive have to increase the percentage return to justify the additional $20 (or some other number you choose)?
To find the answer to this and provide a tool for answering other questions with different inputs, we built this model. It references the ACPO model above and matrixes the calculated cost of a given response percentage with the addition of the incentive.
To this has been added a table which permits us to input any combination of response rate and incentive and generate how much additional percentage response would be required to justify using the specified incentive, in the case of this example a $30 cash promise.
As you’ll see, to justify the $30 incentive, response must rise by 0.86% from 2.0% to 2.86%. Any increase greater than 0.86% would make the use of the $30 incentive a winner.
There is no question that money talks. We just need to understand the language.
Any interested reader who wishes to have a copy of this Excel model, email firstname.lastname@example.org with "Model Please" in the subject line.
Peter J. Rosenwald is an expat American living and working in Brazil; founder and first CEO of Wunderman Worldwide, International Division of Wunderman agency) and first chairman of Saatchi & Saatchi Direct Worldwide; strategist and senior executive in charge of building subscription and data-driven marketing for Editora Abril, Latin America's leading magazine publisher; founder of Consult Partners, active strategic marketing consultancy working in Brazil, U.S. and U.K. International keynote speaker on data-driven marketing and author of "Accountable Marketing" (Thomson), "Profiting From the Magic of Marketing Metrics" (Direct Marketing IQ), and "GringoView" blog author for Brazilian Huffington Post. With an international perspective, my blog's purpose is to share my maverick views of this business I've spent the last half-century working in, enjoying and observing.